A

acetaldehyde 37

acetic acid 37, 75

acetic acid bacteria 2, 9, 28, 29, 31, 37, 102

acridine orange stain 114, 115

active dried wine yeast 13, 15, 20

agar 72-81, 84, 85

agar plates 84

air sampling device 43

alcoholic fermentation 2, 9, 13, 16, 18, 24, 33

Acetobacter 2, 4, 31, 37, 110

anamorph 5

API test 6, 43

ascospores 5-8, 11, 12

aseptic technique 82, 83

asexual reproduction 5, 7

assimilation tests 8

ATP (adenosine-5-triphosphate) 43

autoclave 38, 53, 60, 61

autoclaving procedures 55, 77

autolysis 2, 3, 13

B

Bacillus 29, 31, 110

bacteria 1, 2, 4, 10, 28, 29, 31, 32, 95, 102,108, 110, 111

bacteria cultures 32

barium chloride 98

barrel/barrels 3, 45

barrel sampling devices 45

binary fission 7

bipolar budding 7, 8

Botrytis cinerea 2, 3, 37

bottle/bottles 47

bottled/packaged product 3, 4, 6, 9, 102, 114,115

bottling/bottling line 46

‘Brett’ character 5, 27, 107

Brettanomyces (see Dekkera/Brettanomyces)

bromocresol green indicator 75

broths 72, 98

budding 5

bunsen burner 53

C

calcium carbonate 75

Candida 5

candle jar 101,

carbon dioxide 13, 99-101

casks 48

catalase 28, 30

cell shape 11, 12

cell size 11, 12

cell wall 7

cleaning 38,

closures 47, 116

colony characteristics 10, 11, 29, 31

colony forming units 90, 91

colony morphology 11, 109

compressed gas/air 44

contact slides 43

corks 3, 47, 116

D

decline/death phase 13

Dekkera/Brettanomyces 2-5, 8, 10, 11, 27, 37,102, 105, 107

diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) 19

dilution series 87

disinfectant 38, 40

disposal procedures 78

dry heat sterilisation 38

E

ecology 9,

enumeration 90, 91

enzyme/enzymes 7

esters 3, 37

ethyl acetate 37

4-ethylguaiacol 27, 74, 107

4-ethylphenol 27, 74. 107

exponential growth phase 13

F

ferment 3, 4, 9, 16, 20

fermentation 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 14, 16-20, 24

fillers 46

filters 46

filtration 3, 38, 44, 77

fission reproduction 7, 8

flame sterilisation 53, 82

flaming technique 82

fluorescence microscopy 4, 66, 90, 91

fluorescent stains 113-115

Frateur’s medium 75

freeze dried yeast 21

fructose 17, 24, 28

fungi 2, 5

G

gas generating kit 100

Gluconobacter 29, 31, 37, 110

glucose 17, 24, 28

Gram stain 30, 110, 111

H

haemocytometer 4, 7, 90, 91, 92-94

Hanseniaspora 5, 7, 8, 11

health and safety awareness 52-54

heat sterilisation 38

hydrogen peroxide 30, 38

hydrogen sulfide 18, 19

hygiene tests 42

I

incubation conditions 90-102

indigenous ferment 3

indigenous yeast 3

injection point 51

inoculated ferment 6

inoculation 13, 15, 20

inoculum 4, 13, 15, 20

J

juice concentrate 4

K

Kloeckera apiculata 5, 8, 11

L

laboratory equipment 58, 59

laccase 3

lactic acid bacteria 2, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 37,65, 102

Lactobacillus 28, 29, 31, 37, 110

lag phase 13

laminar flow cabinet 53, 57, 62, 63

Louis Pasteur 1

lysozyme 32

M

malic acid 16

malolactic bacteria 16, 32-35

malolactic fermentation (MLF) 2-4, 32-35

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 52

McFarland standards 98

Media 4, 8, 72-81, 96, 102

Acetic acid bacteria agar (AABA) 74

Biggy agar 75

Carr medium 75

Dekkera/Brettanomyces differential broth or medium (DDB or DBDM) 74

Lysine medium 75

MRS + Apple juice agar (MRSAJA) 74

MRS Broth and Apple juice (MRSAJB) 73

WL Differential agar (WLDA) 73

WL Nutrient agar (WLNA) 73

Yeast and Mould Agar (YMA) 73

Yeast and Mould Broth (YMB) 73

membrane filtration 90, 91, 102-106

methylene blue stain 112

microorganism tests 42

microscope 64-71

microscopy 64-71

molecular biology 8

moulds 1-3, 36

mouthfeel 1, 2

multilateral budding 7, 8

N

native yeast 3, 6

nitrogen 18, 19

non-inoculated ferment 3, 6

non-Saccharomyces yeast 6, 10, 15, 102

non-viable cells 90, 91

nutrients 18, 19, 24

nutrition 18, 19

O

Oenococcus 2, 28, 29, 31, 110

oxygen 18, 99-101

P

paper chromatography 34

Pediococcus 28, 29, 31, 37

Petri dishes 84, 85

Petroff-Hausser counting chamber 94

physical/chemical conditions 9, 13, 15, 24

Pichia 2, 8-12, 37

polysaccharides 3, 16

pour plate 90, 91, 96

primary fermentation 2, 4

protein 3, 43

R

reducing sugars 24

rinsers 46

S

Saccharomyces 2-9, 14, 15, 37

Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2, 6, 11, 14, 15, 17,

37, 98

Saccharomyces bayanus 2, 6, 14, 17

Saccharomycodes 7, 8

sampling 49-51, 103

sampling device 45, 49, 51

sampling port 44, 49-51

sanitation and sterilisation 4, 38-49

Schizosaccharomyces 7, 8, 12

secondary fermentation 2, 4

sexual reproduction 5, 7

sharps waste container 55

slant 86

slide/slides 108

slope 6, 86

sluggish/stuck fermentation 4, 17, 18, 24, 25

smear 108

spills 54

spoilage 2-4, 9, 37

spot plate 96

spread plate 90, 91, 96, 97

stab culture 86

staining methods 112

staining technique 108

stationary phase 13

streak plate 88, 89

sulfur dioxide 15, 16, 26, 34, 35

swabbing 42, 117, 120

swabs 4, 117, 120

T

tank/tanks 48, 49

taxonomy 5-7

teleomorph 5

temperature 18, 20

trace minerals 18, 19

trypan blue stain 113

U

ultraviolet light (UV) 62-64

uninoculated ferment 3, 6

unipolar budding 7

V

vegetative reproduction 7

verification method 38

viable yeast 13, 90, 91

viruses 1, 2

vitamins 25

volatile acidity 9, 37

W

waster collection and disposal 55

water bath 53

wet mount 109

Whirl-pak® bag 49

wild ferments 3

wild yeast 3

Y

yeast 1-17, 37, 93, 94, 102

activity 13, 14, 18

assimilable nitrogen (YAN) 18, 19

growth 13-15

inoculum/inoculation 4, 20-23

lees 3, 45

selection 3, 15-17

starter culture 4, 13, 21-23

viability 13, 14, 90, 91, 112-115

vitality 13, 14, 18

Z

Zygosaccharomyces 3, 12